We returned recently from an exciting 19 days of fieldwork at Quelccaya. The expedition was timed to coincide with the conclusion of the wet season following the very strong 2015-16 El Niño, and we gained considerable new information. Specific objectives related to this anomalous year included: AWS data recovery and annual instrument maintenance; snowpit measurements and sampling for chemical analyses; and both GPS mass balance and ice margin measurements. We also had an opportunity - which for over a decade was only a dream - to spend time learning about and documenting breeding behavior of the White-winged Diuca-Finch. This species is among the highest-elevation nesting birds of the Western Hemisphere, and is the only species known to build nests on glaciers (see here for background, soon to be updated); our recent observations yielded a wealth of new understandings. As always, Vicencio Expeditions provided fantastic logistical support, allowing our team of 5 to work safely and efficiently. Below is a quick collection of images documenting some of our observations.
[*Caveats to this statement are required. Current accumulation is based on the amount present on 2 May 2016, above the 2015 dry season surface (water equivalence). This may under-estimate accumulation if a greater-than-normal proportion of precipitation was in the form of rain and percolated completely through the annual increment. Under-estimation could also occur if a greater proportion of meltwater percolated completely through, rather than refreezing within 2015-16 accumulation. However, the accumulation present in early May has always been less than that preserved when the subsequent wet season begins (due, for example, to dry-season sublimation).]
paper in review). Where will diucas nest in the future, as recession of the ice cap accelerates
and suitable locations disappear?